Sunday, September 27, 2015

Huang Di’s Inner Classic——Discourse on the True [Qi Endowed by]Heaven in High Antiquity (3)

Translator: Paul U. Unschuld and Hermann Tessenow in Collaboration with Zheng Jinsheng; University of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles

Huang Di:
“I have heard, in high antiquity there were true men.60 They upheld [the patterns of] heaven and earth and they grasped [the regularity of] yin and yang. They exhaled and inhaled essence qi. 61 They stood for themselves and guarded their spirit. Muscles and flesh were like one. 62 Hence, they were able to achieve longevity, in correspondence with heaven and earth. There was no point in time when [their life could have] come to an end. 63 Such was their life in the Way.64
At the time of middle antiquity, there were the accomplished men. They were of pure virtue and they were entirely in accord with the Way. 65 They adapted themselves to [the regularity] of yin and yang and they lived in harmony with the four seasons. They left the world and they departed from the common.66 They accumulated essence and preserved their spirit. They roamed between heaven and earth and their vision as well as their hearing went beyond the eight reaches. This way, they added to their lifespan and were strong. They, too, may be counted among the true men.
Next, there were the sages. They lived in harmony with heaven and earth and they followed the patterns of the eight winds. 67 They accommodated their cravings and their desires within the world and the common and their heart knew no anger. In their activities they had no desire to disassociate themselves from the world; in their <clothing and> bearing they had no desire to be observed by the common people. 68 Externally, they did not tax their physical appearance with any affairs; internally, they did not suffer from any pondering. They made every effort to achieve peaceful relaxation and they considered self-realization as success. Their physical body did not deteriorate and their essence and their spirit did not dissipate. They, too, could reach a number of one hundred [years].
Next, there were the exemplary men. They took heaven as law and the earth as rule; their appearance resembled sun and moon. They distinguished among and arranged the stars [on the basis of their] movements contrary to or following [the movements of] yin and yang. 69 They distinguished among the four seasons. They went along with high antiquity and they acted in complete union with the Way. They, too, were able to add to their long life and to have their full time.”

Just as a reference: Lao Tzu(True Men), Chuang Tzu(Accomplished Men), Confucius(Sages), Mo Tse(Exemplary Men)

60 Wang Bing: True men are those who have attained the Way. For classic definitions of the true men see 莊子, 大宗師, and 淮南子, 本經訓, as well as 史記, 始皇本紀.
61 442/34: “ ‘Exhaling and inhaling essence qi is one of the ancient methods of nourishing life. Another name is 行氣, to move the qi.’ ” See also 莊子, 刻意篇.
62 L in Yi et al.: Quan Yuanqi has 身肌宗一 instead of 肌肉若一; the Tai su, too. Yang Shangshan comments: Muscles and stature of the true mans body are of identical quality with the Uppermost Pole. Hence, [the text] states: are of one kind with the One.’ ”
63 Wang Bing: Their body paralleled the Way and their longevity paralleled the Way. Hence, they were able to live for an endless time in that their long life lasted through the entire [existence of] heaven and earth. stands for , to exhaust entirely.’ ” On the basis of Huangs commentary on 論語, 為政 (, 當也), NJCD explains as identical here with in the meaning of 相當, corresponding. In this case, the passage reads: Hence, they were able to have a long life corresponding to heaven and earth. Gao Jiwu/9 agrees. Shen Zumian: The character is a mistake; maybe this should be the character , to oppose. Elsewhere it is stated that should be , to correspond, because and have often been exchanged for each other in antiquity. However, on the basis of character similarity, it should be . In this case the passage should read: They were able to obtain longevity despite the limitations imposed by heaven and earth on the lifespan of man. Such an interpretation is in keeping with the following sentence.
64 Zhang Qi: These four characters are an erroneous insertion. Zhang Yizhi et al.:
These four characters make no sense; there must be an erroneous omission.
65 L in Yi et al.: Quan Yuanqi has 合于道數. 497/34 agrees on the basis that the surrounding text abounds with daoist notions and identifies 道數 as daoist arts and numbers.
66 Gao Shishi: With their body they were part of the customs of their days; with their heart they transcended the customs of their days.
67 A concept referring to winds originating in the eight cardinal points East, South, West, North, East-North, East-South, West-South, and West-North. See also Suwen
26, note 21.
68 A t first glance, the three characters 被服章 make no sense here, and they do not fit into the metrical structure of the preceding and the two following lines which are composed of six characters each. Lin Yi et al. and various later commentators agree that they represent accidental amendations. In contrast, 1715/80 proposes to move 被服章 in front of the line before last, 無恚嗔之心, to create two parallel strings of eight characters with similar structure (適嗜 .. 之間 and 被服 .. 之心) and identifies as preposition, reads in the sense of 遵守, to observe, and in the sense of 章法, law. The entire eight character passage should read, according to 1715/80: they observed the constraints of the laws and had no angry feelings. 1208/131 leaves the three characters 被服章 at their place and sees a string of four characters 被服章舉. He identifies as , to display, and, on the basis of 國語, 周語下, as , praise.1208/131 reads the entire passage from to as: In the style and color of their clothing they did not display the fashions of their days. 475/41 identifies with ,to eliminate, and reads 服章 as 章服, official dress, in the sense of strict hierarchic order. In this case the passage would read: The Sages did away with rigid hierarchies.We consider the two characters 被服, clothing, a later insertion intended to elaborate on the following statement. was added to form together with a parallel two character compound, bearing.
69 Wang Bing: refers to all the stars; refers to the pole star. 辯列 is to say: they defined the sequence of the more distant and not so distant positions occupied by the stars in the course of 365 days. They went against or they followed yin and yang is to say: by conducting an opposing and/or regular counting based on the six jia 六甲 [pattern] and other patterns they figured out subtle omens of luck or misfortune. The Yin Yang Scripture 陰陽書 states: the jia zi 甲子[cycle] of man and center starts from jia zi 甲子 and is followed by yi chou 乙丑, etc., counting in accordance with the usual sequence. The jia zi [cycle] of the earth and of that below starts from jia xu 甲戌 and is followed by gui you 癸酉, counting against the usual sequence. That is meant bythey went against or they followed yin and yang.’ ”

Sunday, August 30, 2015

Huang Di’s Inner Classic——Discourse on the True [Qi Endowed by]Heaven in High Antiquity(2)

Translator: Paul U. Unschuld and Hermann Tessenow in Collaboration with Zheng Jinsheng; University of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles

[Huang] Di:
“When someone is old in years and no [longer] has children, is it that his strength is exhausted?39 Or is it that the heavenly numbers40 are such?”41
Qi Bo:
“In a female, at the age42 of seven, the qi of the kidneys abounds. The [first] teeth are substituted and the hair grows long. With two times seven, the heaven gui43 arrives,44 the controlling vessel is passable and the great thoroughfare vessel45 abounds [with qi]. The monthly affair moves down in due time and, hence, [a woman] may have children.46 With three times seven, the qi of the kidneys has reached its normal level. Hence, the wisdom teeth47 emerge and [females] grow to their full size. With four times seven, the sinews and bones are firm and the hair has grown to its full extent. The body and the limbs are in a state of abundance and strength. With five times seven, the yang brilliance vessel weakens; the face begins to dry out; the hair begins to fall off. 48 With six times seven, the three yang vessels weaken {in the upper sections}. The face is all parched, 49 the hair begins to turn white.50 With seven times seven, the controlling vessel is depleted and the great thoroughfare vessel is weak and [its contents are] diminished. The heaven gui is exhausted.The way of the earth is impassable. Hence, the physical appearance is spoilt and [a woman can] no [longer] have children.51

In a male, at the age of eight, the qi of the kidneys is replete; his hair grows and the [initial] teeth are substituted. With two times eight, the qi of the kidneys abounds;52the heaven gui arrives and the essence qi flows away. Yin and yang find harmony. 53 Hence, he can have children. With three times eight, the qi of the kidneys has reached its normal level. The sinews and the bones are firm and strong. Hence, the wisdom teeth emerge and [men] grow to their full size of qi and a deficiency of blood, because [the latter] is frequently drained by way of menstruation.” With four times eight, the sinews and the bones prosper in abundance. The muscles and the flesh are full and strong.With five times eight, the qi of the kidneys weakens; the hair falls off and the teeth wither. With six times eight, the yang qi weakens and is exhausted in the upper sections. The face dries out and the hair on the head and on the temples shows streaks of white.54 With seven times eight, the qi in the liver weakens; the sinews can no longer move.55 The heaven gui is exhausted. {The [remaining] essence is diminished} The kidney depot is weak and the physical body is completely exhausted.56 With eight times eight, the teeth and the hair go. The kidneys rule the water; they receive the essence from the five depots and six palaces and they store it. Hence, when there is abundance in the five depots, [essence] can flow away. [At this age] now the five depots are all weak and the sinews and the bones have become sluggish. The heaven gui is used up entirely. Hence, the hair on the head and on the temples turns white and the body and the limbs are heavy. [A male of that age] no [longer] walks upright and no [longer] has children.”
[Huang] Di:
“It happens that someone who is already old in years nevertheless has children, how can that be?”
Qi Bo:
“In this case the life span [allotted] by heaven exceeds the norm.57 The qi passes through the vessels as usual and the qi of the kidneys has a surplus. Although [someone] has children, males do not exceed the end reached at eight times eight and females do not exceed the end reached at seven times seven, when the essence qi of heaven and earth are all exhausted.” 58
[Huang] Di:
“Now, those [who follow] the Way, they all reach a number of one hundred years. Can they have children?”
Qi Bo:

“Now, those [who follow] the Way, they can drive away old age and they preserve their physical appearance. Although their body has lived a long life, they are [still] able to produce children.” 59

39 Wang Bing: is 材幹, that is, the ability keep ones body standing upright.JJZG: is identical with . ()is , function.’ ”
40 Ma Shi: These are all the numbers bestowed upon man by heaven. 1551/65: “ ‘Numbers of heaven is identical with the Way of heaven.
41 Hu Shu: is , initial particle. Shen Zumian: Hu Shu is wrong; must not be interpreted as . is , to comply with.’ ” Zhang Yizhi et al.: Both sentences are questions. Hence, to interpret as is in accordance with the meaning. As for , the Shuo wen 說文 states is , sinew.’’ Hence, 材力 ought to refer to the qi of the kidneys.
42 384/58 points out that the character was used in the sense of years of life not before the Han dynasty.
43 Wang Bing: is to say 壬癸, this is the water of the North, the name of one of the [heavenly] branches. The controlling vessel and the thoroughfare vessel are both extraordinary conduit vessels. When the qi of the kidneys is complete and abundant, the thoroughfare and the controlling vessel are passed by a flow. The menstrual blood gradually accumulates and moves down when its time comes. The thoroughfare is the sea of blood; the controlling [vessel] governs uterus and fetus. When both supply each other one may have children. Zhang Jiebin: All [earlier] authors have explained the term 天癸 as referring to [male] essence and [female] blood. But if we analyse the text, where it states: In females, with two times seven the 天癸 arrives; .. the monthly affair moves down periodically. In males, with two times eight, the 天癸 arrives; .. the essence qi flows off, then in both cases the 天癸 comes first and is then followed by essence and blood, respectively. There is a clear differentiation between what comes first and what comes second; each has its own meaning. How then could anyone say that 天癸 is essence and blood, or that blood and essence are 天癸! , now, is the water of heaven; it is the name of a [heavenly] stem. The stems are the yang of the branches.
The designation for the yang is qi. is the mate of ; the designation for the mate is yin. Hence, 天癸 refers to the yin qi of 天一. This qi changes to water. Hence, it is named 天癸. Ma Shi: 天癸 is the yin essence. The reason is, the kidneys belong to the water; the , too, belongs to the water. It is generated from an accumulation of qi of the earlier dependencies. 2756/43: The text of 上古天真論 does not have the two characters 天真. But these two characters in the title must have been taken from the contents of this treatise. Hence, we cannot but conclude that the two characters 天癸 must be a mistake for 天真. 925/13 agrees. 2756/44 and 2757/43 go further and interpret as referring here to the head as opposed to which, in the phrase 地道, the Way of the earth, refers to the kidneys. Hence, according to 2756 and 2757,heavenand earth signify above and below, that is, head and kidneys/genital region, in the body. Su wen 05 has 天地者萬物之上下也, Heaven and earth constitute above and below of all creatures. Accordingly, 天真 is a true qi produced in the brain of the head. Such a concept, though, is attested nowhere else. Yang Shangshan: 天癸 is the essence qi. Zhongyi yanjiuyuan...: “ ‘Heaven stands for 天一; is one of the ten branches; it belongs to [the agent of] water. Tian yi generates water; hence, the name is 天癸, water of heaven.’ ” See also 1343.
44 496/54 quotes earlier commentators who have interpreted here as , full,”“complete, and agrees on the basis that a meaning of complete is the opposite of ,exhausted, further down. In this case the passage should read: when the true [qi of]heaven is complete. See also 1530.
45 L in Yi et al.: Quan Yuanqi and Tai su, as well as Jia yi jing, have 伏衝之脈, vessel of the hidden thoroughfare.’ ” 925/14 identifies great thoroughfare vessel as thoroughfare vessel. Yu Yue: In the Han-era, the character was occasionally written . ... Later on, people did not recognize this character. They added a dot and wrote it as , creating a different character.
46 Wang Bing: What is called monthly affair is a normal, harmonious qi that appears regularly every thirtieth day. When this period is extended, the [respective woman] is said to have a disease.
47 Wang Bing: These are the teeth that grow at the very end. When the kidney qi is balanced and the wisdom teeth grow, that shows that the teeth are extensions of the bones. Tanba: is identical with .
48 Wang Bing: The yang brilliance vessel supplies the face with qi. Hence, when it weakens, the hair falls off and the face dries out.
49 Zhang Yizhi et al.: “焦 is , worn out by grief. The Han shu 漢書, Xuzhuan 敘傳, states: 朝為榮華, 夕而焦瘁. 焦瘁 is 憔瘁, worn out by grief.’ ”
50 Wang Bing: All the three yang vessels extend upwards to the head. Hence, when the three yang vessels weaken, then the face is all dried out and the hair begins to turn white. The reason for their weakness lies in the nature of females. They have a surplus
51 Wang Bing: The menstruation stops. This is called the way of the earth is impassable.
Both the thoroughfare and the controlling [vessel] weaken. Hence, [the text]
states: the physical appearance is spoilt and a woman can no longer have children.
52 Gao Jiwu/236: Guo Aichun-92 considers the three characters 腎氣盛 to be a
later addition.
53 Most Chinese authors interpret 陰陽和 as a reference to the sexual union of man
and woman. In contrast, the Japanese commentator 喜多村: That is to say, in males,
with two times eight [years], yin and yang, that is, qi and blood, are blended harmoniously.
925 agrees.
54 Tanba: Meng zi has 頒白. Zhao Qi 趙崎 commented: is , streaks. That is, half of the hair consists of white streaks. Zhang Yizhi et al.: The Tai ping sheng hui fang 太平聖惠方, quoting [this passage from the Su wen] does not have the character . Neither does the character appear in Wang Bings comment.
55 A ccording to Ma Kanwen, the following text is an example of obvious disarrangement of the original bamboo strips. He suggests to insert here the two characters 八八 from further below. See Ma Kanwen p.11.
56 Wang Bing: The qi of the liver nourishes the sinews. [Now] the liver is weak, hence, the sinews can no longer move. The qi of the kidneys nourishes the bones. [Now] the kidneys are weak, hence, the body is extremely tired. The heaven gui is exhausted. Hence, only little essence is left. Zhang Yizhi et al.: The Han shu 漢書, Xiong nu zhuan xia 匈奴傳下, states: is , distress. In a commentary to the Lü shi chun qiu 呂氏春秋, Shi yin 適音, Gao You 高誘 stated: is , disease.’ ”
57 Wang Bing: That is, the true qi allotted by heaven is present in surplus from the very beginning.
58 Wang Bing: If one is old and begets children, the age of the children will not exceed the numerical limits set by the heaven gui. In contrast to Wang Bing, most later commentators have interpreted the phrase when the essence qi of heaven and earth are all exhausted as characterizing the person who has children at a high age. 522/43 notices a contradiction here, because this same person is said to have a surplus of kidney qi. On the basis of the meaning of to carry attested for in the Shuo wen 說文 and other sources, Guan Jisheng suggests a meaning of load, stress here:males who are beyond eight times eight, and females who are beyond seven times seven, perceive reproduction as stress on their vigor. See also 772/34.
59 Wang Bing: These are the so-called people who have attained the Way.